A peptidoglycan recognition protein involved in immune recognition and immune defenses in Ruditapes philippinarum.

A new interesting article has been published in Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2019 May;88:441-448. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2019.03.017. Epub 2019 Mar 11. and titled:

A peptidoglycan recognition protein involved in immune recognition and immune defenses in Ruditapes philippinarum.

Authors of this article are:

Yang D, Han Y, Liu Y, Cao R, Wang Q, Dong Z, Liu H, Zhang X, Zhang Q, Zhao J.

A summary of the article is shown below:

Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are important pattern recognition receptors in the innate immune system of invertebrates. In the study, a short PGRP (designed as RpPGRP) was identified and characterized from the manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The open reading frame of RpPGRP encoded a polypeptide of 249-amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 27.2 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.62. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis strongly suggested that RpPGRP was a new member of the PGRP superfamily. In non-stimulated clams, RpPGRP exhibited different tissue expression pattern, and highly expressed in hepatopancreas and hemocytes. Expression of RpPGRP transcripts was significantly up-regulated in hemocytes of clams post Vibrio anguillarum or Micrococcus luteus challenge. The recombinant RpPGRP (rRpPGRP) exhibited high affinity to PGN, LPS and zymosan in a concentration-dependent manner. With a broad spectrum of bacterial binding activities, rRpPGRP exhibited strong agglutination activity to Escherichia coli, Vibrio splendidus, V. anguillarum and M. luteus. Furthermore, rRpPGRP exhibited Zn2+-dependent amidase activity and catalyzed the degradation of insoluble PGN. Especially, rRpPGRP exhibited significant antibacterial activity against E. coli and M. luteus. Moreover, the biofilm formation of E. coli could be inhibited after rRpPGRP incubation in the presence of Zn2+. This inhibitory effect of rRpPGRP might attribute to its amide bactericidal activity. Taken together, rRpPGRP played important roles in PGRP-mediated immune defense mechanisms, especially by recognizing antigens and eliminating bacteria.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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This article is a good source of information and a good way to become familiar with topics such as: Immune recognition; Immune response; Peptidoglycan recognition protein; Ruditapes philippinarum.