Hydroxamic Acid Derivatives of β-Carboline/Hydroxycinnamic Acid Hybrids Inducing Apoptosis and Autophagy through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathways.
Authors of this article are:
Ling Y, Li Y, Zhu R, Qian J, Liu J, Gao W, Meng C, Miao J, Xiong B, Qiu X, Ling C, Dai H, Zhang Y.
A summary of the article is shown below:
Naturally occurring β-carbolines are known to have antitumor activities but with limited effectiveness. In order to improve their efficacy, a series of new hydroxamic-acid-containing β-carbolines connected via a hydroxycinnamic acid moitey (12a-f) were developed to incorporate histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition for possible synergistic effects. When evaluated in in vitro assays, most of the analogues showed significant antitumor activities against four human cancer cells. In particular, 12b showed the highest cytotoxic potency of the series, including drug-resistant Bel7402 cells, but had minimal effect on normal hepatic LO2 cells. These compounds also showed excellent inhibitory effects against HDAC1/6, which appear to contribute greatly to their antiproliferative properties. Compound 12b enhanced the acetylation levels of histone H3 and α-tubulin and induced greater cancer cell apoptosis than the FDA-approved HDAC inhibitor SAHA by regulating expression of apoptotic proteins Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase 3. Importantly, 12b also induced a significant amount of autophagic flux activity in Bel7402 cells by increasing the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3-II proteins and decreasing that of LC3-I and p62. Finally, 12b significantly inhibited PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, an important cell-growth-promoting pathway aberrantly activated in many cancers. Together, the results suggest that these hydroxamic-acid-containing β-carboline derivatives may be new leads for the discovery of agents for the treatment of human carcinoma cancers.
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