Genetic dissection of the mechanism of flowering time based on an environmentally stable and specific QTL in Brassica napus.
Authors of this article are:
Li B, Zhao W, Li D, Chao H, Zhao X, Ta N, Li Y, Guan Z, Guo L, Zhang L0, Li S, Wang H, Li M.
A summary of the article is shown below:
Flowering time is an important agronomic trait that is highly influenced by the environment. To elucidate the genetic mechanism of flowering time in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), a genome-wide QTL analysis was performed in a doubled haploid population grown in winter, semi-winter and spring ecological conditions. Fifty-five consensus QTLs were identified after combining phenotype and genomic data, including 12 environment-stable QTLs and 43 environment-specific QTLs. Importantly, six major QTLs for flowering time were identified, of which two were considered environment-specific QTLs in spring ecological condition and four were considered environment-stable QTLs in winter and semi-winter ecological conditions. Through QTL comparison, 18 QTLs were colocalized with QTLs from six other published studies. Combining the candidate genes with their functional annotation, in 49 of 55 consensus QTLs, 151 candidate genes in B. napus corresponding to 95 homologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana related to flowering were identified, including BnaC03g32910D (CO), BnaA02g12130D (FT) and BnaA03g13630D (FLC). Most of the candidate genes were involved in different flowering regulatory pathways. Based on re-sequencing and differences in sequence annotation between the two parents, we found that regions containing some candidate genes have numerous non-frameshift InDels and many non- synonymous mutations, which might directly lead to gene functional variation. Flowering time was negativly correlated with seed yield and thousand seed weight based on a QTL comparison of flowering time and seed yield traits, which has implications in breeding new early-maturing varieties of B. napus. Moreover, a putative flowering regulatory network was constructed, including the photoperiod, circadian clock, vernalization, autonomous and gibberellin pathways. Multiple copies of genes led to functional difference among the different copies of homologous genes, which also increased the complexity of the flowering regulatory networks. Taken together, the present results not only provide new insights into the genetic regulatory network underlying the control of flowering time but also improve our understanding of flowering time regulatory pathways in rapeseed.
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This article is a good source of information and a good way to become familiar with topics such as:
Candidate genes;Environmental stable and specific quantitative trait loci;Flowering regulatory network;Flowering time;Multi-environments;Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)
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