Science News

[Synaptic plasticity as a substrate of resilience].

A new interesting article has been published in Rev Neurol. 2018 Dec 1;67(11):453-460. English ; Review and titled:

[Synaptic plasticity as a substrate of resilience].

Authors of this article are:

Montes-Rodriguez CJ, Urteaga-Urias E.

A summary of the article is shown below:

in English, SpanishTITLE: Plasticidad sinaptica como sustrato de la resiliencia.Introduccion. Las experiencias adversas facilitan el desarrollo de enfermedades mentales como la depresion, la ansiedad o la esquizofrenia. Sin embargo, algunos individuos muestran capacidades para superar la adversidad logrando un desarrollo fisico y psicologico adecuado; este proceso se conoce como resiliencia. Objetivo. Discutir cual es el sustrato neuronal de la resiliencia. Desarrollo. Se plantea que la resiliencia, neuronalmente, necesita sistemas que representen y evaluen el contexto (la situacion adversa) para dar una salida conductual adecuada, y que reorganicen la memoria de la situacion adversa para poder contar otro relato a partir de los mismos elementos de la experiencia, es decir, un sistema que permita reorganizar los ensambles neuronales de dicha memoria. En este sentido, no es casualidad que los sustratos neuronales involucrados en la resiliencia incluyan al sistema de la motivacion-accion-recompensa (nucleo accumbens-area tegmental ventral), de las emociones (amigdala-hipocampo), del estres (eje hipotalamo-hipofiso-adrenal) y de la representacion, evaluacion y discriminacion del contexto (corteza prefrontal-hipocampo). Se hace enfasis en mostrar como las experiencias adversas especificas modulan tanto la actividad del sistema neuronal de la resiliencia como la salida conductual de cada individuo. Conclusiones. Se propone que la plasticidad sinaptica en estructuras que representan y evaluan el contexto son el sustrato neuronal de la resiliencia. Especificamente, las interacciones corticohipocampicas permitirian la reestructuracion de las experiencias adversas a traves de la reorganizacion de los ensambles neuronales.INTRODUCTION: Adverse life experiences promote the development of mental illness such as depression, anxiety or schizophrenia. However, some individuals are capable to overcome adversity, achieving a physical and psychological normal development; this process is known as resilience.AIM: To discuss the neuronal substrates of resilience.DEVELOPMENT: We propose that resilience at neuronal level needs systems for representing and evaluating the context (adverse situation) in order to display an adequate behavioural output, and for reorganizing memory associated to the adverse situation in order to tell a new story using the same elements of experience; this is, a system that allows to reorganize neuronal ensembles associated to the adverse memory. In this sense, it is not coincidence that neuronal substrates involving in resilience include the reward-guided behavior system (nucleus accumbens-ventral tegmental area), the emotional system (amygdala-hippocampus), the stress system (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal) and the system for context evaluation, representation and discrimination (prefrontal cortex-hippocampus). We emphasize that each adverse experience shapes both the activity of the resilience neuronal system and the behavioral output.CONCLUSIONS: We propose that synaptic plasticity in structures for representing and evaluating context is the neuronal substrate of resilience. Specifically, cortico-hippocampal interactions would allow to re-build adverse experiences through the reorganization of neuronal ensembles.

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