Long-Term Effects of Intensive Glycemic and Blood Pressure Control and Fenofibrate Use on Kidney Outcomes.
Authors of this article are:
Mottl AK, Buse JB, Ismail-Beigi F, Sigal RJ, Pedley CF, Papademetriou V, Simmons DL, Katz L, Mychaleckyj JC, Craven TE0.
A summary of the article is shown below:
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In people with type 2 diabetes, aggressive control of glycemia, BP, and lipids have resulted in conflicting short-term (<5 years) kidney outcomes. We aimed to determine the long-term kidney effects of these interventions.DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) was a multifactorial intervention study in people with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cardiovascular disease (n=10,251), to examine the effects of intensive glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c <6.0% versus 7%-7.9%), BP control (systolic BP <120 mm Hg versus <140 mm Hg) or fenofibrate versus placebo added to simvastatin on cardiovascular events and death. The glycemia trial lasted 3.7 years and participants were followed for another 6.5 years in ACCORDION, the ACCORD Follow-On Study. The post hoc primary composite kidney outcome was defined as incident macroalbuminuria, creatinine doubling, need for dialysis, or death by any cause. Cox proportional hazards regression estimated the effect of each intervention on the composite outcome and individual components. In secondary outcome analyses, competing risk regression was used to account for the risk of death in incident kidney outcomes. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographics, randomization groups, and clinical factors.RESULTS: There were 988 cases of incident macroalbuminuria, 954 with doubling of creatinine, 351 requiring dialysis, and 1905 deaths. Hazard ratios (HRs) for the composite outcome with intensive glycemic, BP control, and fenofibrate use compared with standard therapy were 0.92 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.86 to 0.98), 1.16 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.28), and 1.16 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.27). Multivariable, secondary outcome analyses showed that in the glycemia trial, only macroalbuminuria was significantly decreased (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.77). In the BP and lipid trials, only creatinine doubling was affected (HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.30 to 2.06 and HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.61 to 2.49, respectively).CONCLUSIONS: In people with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cardiovascular disease, intensive glycemic control may result in a long-term reduction in macroalbuminuria; however, intensive BP control and fenofibrates may increase the risk for adverse kidney events.Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.
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This article is a good source of information and a good way to become familiar with topics such as:
Blood Glucose;Blood Pressure Determination;Cardiovascular Diseases;Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2;Fenofibrate;Glycated Hemoglobin A;Random Allocation;Simvastatin;blood pressure;blood pressure control;clinical trial;creatinine;diabetic nephropathy;fibrates;glycemic control;kidney;lipids;renal dialysis
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