A Precision Medicine Approach to Cerebral Edema and Intracranial Hypertension after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Quo Vadis?
Authors of this article are:
Jha RM, Kochanek PM,,0.
A summary of the article is shown below:
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Standard clinical protocols for treating cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension after severe TBI have remained remarkably similar over decades. Cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension are treated interchangeably when in fact intracranial pressure (ICP) is a proxy for cerebral edema but also other processes such as extent of mass lesions, hydrocephalus, or cerebral blood volume. A complex interplay of multiple molecular mechanisms results in cerebral edema after severe TBI, and these are not measured or targeted by current clinically available tools. Addressing these underpinnings may be key to preventing or treating cerebral edema and improving outcome after severe TBI.RECENT FINDINGS: This review begins by outlining basic principles underlying the relationship between edema and ICP including the Monro-Kellie doctrine and concepts of intracranial compliance/elastance. There is a subsequent brief discussion of current guidelines for ICP monitoring/management. We then focus most of the review on an evolving precision medicine approach towards cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension after TBI. Personalization of invasive neuromonitoring parameters including ICP waveform analysis, pulse amplitude, pressure reactivity, and longitudinal trajectories are presented. This is followed by a discussion of cerebral edema subtypes (continuum of ionic/cytotoxic/vasogenic edema and progressive secondary hemorrhage). Mechanisms of potential molecular contributors to cerebral edema after TBI are reviewed. For each target, we present findings from preclinical models, and evaluate their clinical utility as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for cerebral edema reduction. This selection represents promising candidates with evidence from different research groups, overlap/inter-relatedness with other pathways, and clinical/translational potential. We outline an evolving precision medicine and translational approach towards cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension after severe TBI.
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This article is a good source of information and a good way to become familiar with topics such as:
Biomarkers;Cerebral edema;Intracranial hypertension;Severe traumatic brain injury;Therapeutic target
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