Genome-wide CRISPR screen identifies TMEM41B as a gene required for autophagosome formation.
Authors of this article are:
Morita K, Hama Y, Izume T, Tamura N, Ueno T, Yamashita Y, Sakamaki Y, Mimura K, Morishita H, Shihoya W, Nureki O, Mano H, Mizushima N.
A summary of the article is shown below:
Macroautophagy is an intracellular degradation process that requires multiple autophagy-related (ATG) genes. In this study, we performed a genome-wide screen using the autophagic flux reporter GFP-LC3-RFP and identified TMEM41B as a novel ATG gene. TMEM41B is a multispanning membrane protein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It has a conserved domain also found in vacuole membrane protein 1 (VMP1), another ER multispanning membrane protein essential for autophagy, yeast Tvp38, and the bacterial DedA family of putative half-transporters. Deletion of TMEM41B blocked the formation of autophagosomes at an early step, causing accumulation of ATG proteins and small vesicles but not elongating autophagosome-like structures. Furthermore, lipid droplets accumulated in TMEM41B-knockout (KO) cells. The phenotype of TMEM41B-KO cells resembled those of VMP1-KO cells. Indeed, TMEM41B and VMP1 formed a complex in vivo and in vitro, and overexpression of VMP1 restored autophagic flux in TMEM41B-KO cells. These results suggest that TMEM41B and VMP1 function together at an early step of autophagosome formation.
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