Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii DNA Samples Isolated From Humans Living in North America: An Unexpected High Prevalence of Atypical G…
Authors of this article are:
Pomares C,, Devillard S, Holmes TH, Olariu TR, Press CJ, Ramirez R, Talucod J, Estran R, Su C, Dubey JP0, Ajzenberg D, Montoya JG.
A summary of the article is shown below:
Background: Whereas in Europe most of Toxoplasma gondii genotypes belong to the type II lineage, in Latin America, type II is rare and atypical strains predominate. In North America, data on T. gondii genotypes in humans are scarce.Methods: In this study, T. gondii DNA samples from 67 patients with diagnosed toxoplasmosis in the United States were available for genotyping. Discriminant analysis of principal components was used to infer each atypical genotype to a geographic area where patients were probably infected. Associations between genotype, disease severity, immune status, and geographic region were also estimated.Results: Of 67 DNA samples, 41 were successfully genotyped: 18 (43.9%) and 5 (12.2%) were characterized as types II and III, respectively. The remaining 18 genotypes (43.9%) were atypical and were assigned to a geographic area. Ten genotypes originated from Latin America, 7 from North America, and 1 from Asia (China). In North America, unlike in Europe, T. gondii atypical genotypes are common in humans and, unlike in Latin America, type II strains are still present with significant frequency.Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware that atypical genotypes are common in North America and have been associated with severe ocular and systemic disease and unusual presentations of toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients.
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