Cyclooxygenase-2 in cancer: A review.
Authors of this article are:
Hashemi Goradel N, Najafi M, Salehi E, Farhood B, Mortezaee K.
A summary of the article is shown below:
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is frequently expressed in many types of cancers exerting a pleiotropic and multifaceted role in genesis or promotion of carcinogenesis and cancer cell resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. COX-2 is released by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), macrophage type 2 (M2) cells, and cancer cells to the tumor microenvironment (TME). COX-2 induces cancer stem cell (CSC)-like activity, and promotes apoptotic resistance, proliferation, angiogenesis, inflammation, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells. COX-2 mediated hypoxia within the TME along with its positive interactions with YAP1 and antiapoptotic mediators are all in favor of cancer cell resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. COX-2 exerts most of the functions through its metabolite prostaglandin E2. In some and limited situations, COX-2 may act as an antitumor enzyme. Multiple signals are contributed to the functions of COX-2 on cancer cells or its regulation. Members of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and nuclear factor-κβ are main upstream modulators for COX-2 in cancer cells. COX-2 also has interactions with a number of hormones within the body. Inhibition of COX-2 provides a high possibility to exert therapeutic outcomes in cancer. Administration of COX-2 inhibitors in a preoperative setting could reduce the risk of metastasis in cancer patients. COX-2 inhibition also sensitizes cancer cells to treatments like radio- and chemotherapy. Chemotherapeutic agents adversely induce COX-2 activity. Therefore, choosing an appropriate chemotherapy drugs along with adjustment of the type and does for COX-2 inhibitors based on the type of cancer would be an effective adjuvant strategy for targeting cancer.
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