Elicitation of Differential Responses in the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita to Tomato Root Exudate Cytokinin, Flavonoids, and Alkaloids.
Authors of this article are:
Kirwa HK, Murungi LK, Beck JJ, Torto B.
A summary of the article is shown below:
Root exudates of plants mediate interactions with a variety of organisms in the rhizosphere, including root-knot nematodes (RKNs, Meloidogyne spp.) We investigated the responses of the motile stage second-stage juveniles (J2s) of Meloidogyne incognita to non-volatile components identified in the root exudate of tomato. Using stylet thrusting, chemotaxis assays, and chemical analysis, we identified specific metabolites in the root exudate that attract and repel J2s. Liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of bioactive fractions obtained from the root exudate revealed a high diversity of compounds, of which five were identified as the phytohormone zeatin (cytokinin), the flavonoids quercetin and luteolin, and alkaloids solasodine and tomatidine. In stylet thrusting and chemotaxis assays, the five compounds elicited concentration-dependent responses in J2s relative to 2% dimethyl sulfoxide (negative control) and methyl salicylate (positive control). These results indicate that J2 herbivory is influenced by root exudate chemistry and concentrations of specific compounds, which may have potential applications in RKN management.
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Solanum lycopersicum;agricultural pest;attractant;chemotaxis;repellent;stylet thrusting
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