The role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes mellitus: a narrative review.
Authors of this article are:
Grammatiki M Karras S Kotsa K.
A summary of the article is shown below:
Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder associated with chronic complications, is traditionally classified into two main subtypes. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) results from gradual pancreatic islet β cell autoimmune destruction, extending over months or years. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a heterogeneous disorder, with both insulin resistance and impairment in insulin secretion contributing to its pathogenesis. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin with an established role in calcium metabolism. Recently, several studies have provided evidence suggesting a role for it in various non-skeletal metabolic conditions, including both types of diabetes mellitus. Preclinical studies of vitamin D action on insulin secretion, insulin action, inflammatory processes, and immune regulation, along with evidence of an increase of hypovitaminosis D worldwide, have prompted several epidemiological, observational, and supplementation clinical studies investigating a potential biological interaction between hypovitaminosis D and diabetes. This narrative review aims to summarize current knowledge on the effect of vitamin D on T1DM and T2DM pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment, as well as on micro- and macrovascular complications of the disease. Furthermore, on the basis of current existing evidence, we aim to highlight areas for potential future research.
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