Hemophagocytic syndrome in patients living with HIV: a retrospective study.
Authors of this article are:
Telles JP de Andrade Perez M Marcusso R Correa K Teixeira RFA Tobias WM.
A summary of the article is shown below:
Various infectious diseases can hyper-stimulate the immune system, causing hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS). Little is known regarding the accuracy of diagnostic criteria and epidemiological triggering factors in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) setting. We investigated the major infectious disease triggers of HPS in patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS and determined the accuracy of bone marrow aspiration (BMA). The inclusion criteria were (i) confirmed HIV diagnosis, (ii) bone marrow aspiration, and (iii) a minimum of four HPS criteria. Patients were further classified into those with four presumed HPS criteria, or ≥ 5 confirmed criteria. The disease triggers, accuracy of bone marrow aspiration, and prognosis markers were examined. Presumed HPS was observed in 15/36 patients (41%), and confirmed HPS in 58% (n = 21). The major etiological triggers were infection with Mycobacterium (34%), Cytomegalovirus (14%), Cryptococcus neoformans (11%), and hematological or tumoral disease (11%). BMA demonstrated 93% specificity on screening diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] 12.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-115.1, P = 0.01). Ferritin > 5000 ng/mL correlated with probability of death in univariate analysis (OR 6.00, 95% CI 1.33-27.05, P = 0.02). Ferritin performance as test of death probability presented area under the curve as 0.74 (95% CI 0.56-0.91, P = 0.016). However, neither cluster of differentiation for lymphocyte count nor HIV viral load correlated with patient deaths. Mycobacterium spp. and Cytomegalovirus were the main factors triggering HPS, followed by Cryptococcus neoformans, and hematological and tumoral diseases. High ferritin levels were associated with increased death probability. High specificity was noted with BMA.
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