Characterization of particulate matter and black carbon over Bay of Bengal during summer monsoon: results from the OMM cruise experiment.
Authors of this article are:
Prijith SS Moorthy KK Babu SNS Satheesh SK.
A summary of the article is shown below:
Total and size-segregated particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) concentrations over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) have been measured in the summer monsoon (August-September 2014) onboard a scientific cruise conducted as a part of the Ocean Monsoon and Mixing (OMM) experiment. Role of long-range transport and prevailing meteorology in producing the observed spatio-temporal features is inferred by synthesizing the results of in situ observations in conjunction with the wind components from Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), rainfall data from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), surface BC concentration and BC Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOTBC) from MERRA2 and HYSPLIT back trajectory and dispersion model analysis. Mean values of total PM and BC mass concentrations are observed to be ~ 21.4 μgm-3 and ~ 393ngm-3 respectively. The study has revealed significant influence of monsoon rainfall (over the measurement locations and regions through which transport occurred) on the concentration of both PM and BC over northern BoB. Results also indicate transport of aerosols with significant anthropogenic fraction, from the land regions at west to the BoB. A comprehensive analysis showed that while an eastward wind (westerly) from the Indian mainland produced an increase in PM2.5 over northern BoB, a southerly wind, mostly from the Indian Ocean, caused a decrease in concentration of PM2.5. Spectral variation of absorption coefficients of aerosols reveals that most of the BC over BoB is associated with fossil fuel combustion. Prevailing strong surface-level convergence (associated with a low-level anticyclone) resulted in accumulation and consequent enhancement of aerosol concentration over central and northern BoB during the study period. In addition, horizontal flow rates estimated across western boundary of BoB using AOTBC from MERRA2 for 10 years revealed an increasing trend in BC transport from the mainland leading to a gradual buildup in BC concentration over the regions of BoB.
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This article is a good source of information and a good way to become familiar with topics such as: Aerosol mass concentration;Aerosol transport;Black carbon;Ocean Mixing and Monsoon (OMM);PM2.5.
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