Disseminated tumour cells in bone marrow are the source of cancer relapse after therapy.
Authors of this article are:
Sai B Xiang J.
A summary of the article is shown below:
Accumulating evidence indicates that cancer cells spread much earlier than was previously believed. Recent technological advances have greatly improved the detection methods of circulating tumour cells (CTCs), suggesting that the dissemination of cancer cells into the circulation occurs randomly. Most CTCs die in circulation as a result of shear stress and/or anoikis. However, the persistence of disseminated tumour cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow is the result of interaction of DTCs with bone marrow microenvironment. DTCs in the bone marrow undergo successive clonal expansions and a parallel progression that leads to new variants. Compared to the CTCs, DTCs in the bone marrow have a unique signature, which displayed dormant, mesenchymal phenotype and osteoblast-like or osteoclast-like phenotype. The persistence of DTCs in the bone marrow is always related to minimal residual diseases (MRDs). This review outlines the difference between CTCs and DTCs in the bone marrow and describes how this difference affects the clinical values of CTCs and DTCs, such as metastasis and recurrence. We suggest that DTCs remaining in the bone marrow after therapy can be used as a superior marker in comparison with CTCs to define patients with an unfavourable prognosis and may therefore be a potential prognostic factor and therapeutic target for cancer therapy.
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