Atmospheric and Long-term Aging Effects on the Electrical Properties of Variable Thickness WSe2 Transistors.
Authors of this article are:
Hoffman A Stanford MG Zhang C Ivanov IN Oyedele AD Sales M McDonnell S Koehler M Mandrus D Liang L Sumpter BG Xiao K Rack PD.
A summary of the article is shown below:
Atmospheric and long-term aging effects on electrical properties of WSe2 transistors with various thicknesses are examined. While countless published studies report electrical properties of transition metal dichalcogenide materials, many are not attentive to testing environment or to age of samples, which we have found significantly impacts results. Our as-fabricated exfoliated WSe2 pristine devices are predominantly n-type which is attributed to selenium vacancies. Transfer characteristics of as-fabricated devices measured in air then vacuum reveal physisorbed atmospheric molecules significantly reduced n-type conduction in air. First-principles calculations suggest this short term reversible atmospheric effect can be attributed primarily to physisorbed H2O on pristine WSe2, which is easily removed from the pristine surface in vacuum due to the low adsorption energy. Devices aged in air for over 300 hours demonstrate irreversibly increased p-type conduction and decreased n-type conduction. Additionally, they develop an extended time constant for recovery of the atmospheric adsorbents effect. Short-term atmospheric aging (up to approximately 900 hours) is attributed to O2 and H2O molecules physisorbed to selenium vacancies where electron transfer from the bulk and adsorbed binding energies are higher than the H2O-pristine WSe2. The residual/permanent aging component is attributed to electron trapping molecular O2 and isoelectronic O chemisorption at selenium vacancies, which also passivates the near-conduction band gap state, p-doping the material, with very high binding energy. All effects demonstrated have the expected thickness dependence; namely thinner devices are more sensitive to atmospheric and long-term aging effects.
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