Biology

Biochemistry Acronyms & Abbreviations

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3Hyp – Code for the uncommon amino acid 3-hydroxyproline.
4Hyp – Code for the uncommon amino acid 4-hydroxyproline.
4F1G – 4% formaldehyde and 1% gluteraldehyde.
5-FOA – 5-Fluoroacetic acid.
A
A – (1) Adenine or adenosine; (2) One letter code for the amino acid alanine.
A260 – Absorbance as measured at 260nm.
aa – aminoacyl
Aad – Three letter code for the uncommon amino acid 3-aminoadipic acid.
Abu – Three letter code for the uncommon amino acid 2-aminobutyric acid.
ac – Acetyl.
Ac – Symbol for the element actinium.
ACD – blood anticoagulant
ADP – Adenosine 5′-diphosphate.
Ade – Three letter code for adenine.
Ado – Three letter code for adenosine.
Ag – Symbol for the element silver.
aHyl – Code for the uncommon amino acid allo-hydroxylysine.
aIle – Code for the uncommon amino acid allo-isoleucine.
Al – Symbol for the element aluminum.
Ala – Three letter code for the amino acid alanine.
Am – Symbol for the element americium.
AMP – Adenosine monophosphate.
an – Anisoyl.
AP – Alkaline phosphatase.
Apm – Three letter code for the uncommon amino acid 3-aminopimelic acid.
Ar – Symbol for the element argon.
Arg – Three letter code for the amino acid arginine.
As – Symbol for the element arsenic.
Asn – Three letter code for the amino acid asparagine.
Asp – Three letter code for the amino acid aspartic acid.
At – Symbol for the element astatine.
ATP – Adenosine 5′-triphosphate.
Au – Symbol for the element gold.
B
B – (1) Symbol for the element boron; (2) One letter code for bromouridine.
Ba – Symbol for the element barium.
BAP – Bacterial alkaline phosphatase.
BCIP – 5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indoyl phosphate.
Be – Symbol for the element beryllium.
bh – Benzhydryl.
Bh – Symbol for the element bohrium.
Bi – Symbol for the element bismuth.
Bio-dNTP – Biotin-deoxynucleoside triphosphate.
Bk – Symbol for the element berkelium.
bp – Nucleotide base pair.
br – Bromo.
Br – Symbol for the element bromine.
BrUrd – Abbreviation for bromouridine.
BSA – Bovine serum albumin.
B/W – Blue/White cloning.
bz – Benzoyl.
bzl – Benzyl.
C
C – (1) Cytosine or cytidine; (2) One letter code for the amino acid cysteine; (3) Symbol for the element carbon; (4) One letter code for the amino acid cysteine.
Ca – Symbol for the element calcium.
CA – Casamino acids.
Cd – Symbol for the element cadmium.
cDNA – Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid
Ce – Symbol for the element cerium.
Cf – Symbol for the element californium.
Ci – Curie
CIAP – Calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase.
cl – Chloro.
Cl – Symbol for the element chlorine.
Cm – Symbol for the element curium.
Co – Symbol for the element cobalt.
cpm – Counts per minute.
Cr – Symbol for the element chromium.
Cs – Symbol for the element cesium.
CTP – Cytidine 5′-triphosphate.
Cu – Symbol for the element copper.
Cyd – Three letter code for Cytidine
Cys – Three letter code for the amino acid cysteine.
Cyt – Three letter code for cytosine.
D
D – (1) One letter code for the amino acid aspartic acid; (2) One letter code for dihydrouridine.
Da – Dalton.
dAMP – Deoxyadenosine monophosphate.
dATP – Deoxyadenosine triphosphate.
Db – Symbol for the element dubnium (formerly unnipentium).
Dbu – Three letter code for the uncommon amino acid 2,4-diaminobutyric acid.
dCTP – Deoxycytidine triphosphate.
ddATP – Dideoxyadenosine triphosphate.
ddCTP – Dideoxycytidine triphosphate.
ddGTP – Dideoxyguanosine triphosphate.
ddNTP – Dideoxynucleoside triphosphate.
DEPC – Diethyl pyrocarbonate.
DIG – Digoxigenin.
dGTP – Deoxyguanosine triphosphate.
DMSO – Dimethyl sulfoxide.
dmt – Dimethoxytrityl.
DNA – Deoxyribonucleic acid.
DNase – Deoxyribonuclease.
dns – Dansyl.
dNTP – Deoxynucleoside triphosphate.
dpm – Disintegrations per minute.
Dpm – Three letter code for the uncommon amino acid 2,2′-diaminopimelic acid.
Dpr – Three letter code for the uncommon amino acid 2,3-diaminopropionic acid.
ds – Double stranded.
DTT – Dithiothreitol
dTTP – Deoxythymidine triphosphate.
dUTP – Deoxyuridine triphosphate.
Dy – Symbol for the element dysprosium.
E
E – (1) One letter code for the amino acid glutamic acid; (2) abbreviation for ethyl.
EDTA – Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid.
EGTA – Ethylene glycol tetracetic acid.
ELISA – Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.
EMBL – European Molecular Biology Laboratory
ENDO – Endodeoxyribonuclease assay.
Er – Symbol for the element erbium.
Es – Symbol for the element einsteinium.
Eu – Symbol for the element europium.
exo – Exonuclease.
EXO – 5′ and 3′ exodeoxyribonuclease assay.
F
F – (1) Symbol for the element fluorine; (2) One letter symbol for the amino acid phenylalanine

(3) formyl.

fa – Formylaminoacyl.
Fe – Symbol for the element iron.
fl – Fluoro.
Fm – Symbol for the element fermium.
FOA – 5-Fluoroacetic acid.
Fr – Symbol for the element francium.
G
G – (1) Guanine or Guanosine; (2) One letter code for the amino acid glycine.
Ga – Symbol for the element gallium.
Gal – D-galactose.
Gd – Symbol for the element gadolinium.
Ge – Symbol for the element germanium.
Gln – Three letter code for the amino acid glutamine.
Glu – Three letter code for the amino acid glutamic acid.
Gly – Three letter code for the amino acid glycine.
GTGB – Glycerol tolerant gel buffer.
Gua – Three letter code for guanine.
Guo – Three letter code for guanosine.
GUS – Beta-D-glucuronidase.
H
H – (1) Symbol for the element hydrogen; (2) One letter code for the amino acid histidine;

(3) dihydro.

HBSS – Hank’s Buffered Salt Solution.
He – Symbol for the element helium.
HEPES – N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N’-(2-ethanesulfonic acid).
Hf – Symbol for the element hafnium.
Hg – Symbol for the element mercury.
His – Three letter code for the amino acid histidine.
hm – Hydroxymethyl.
ho – Hydroxy.
Ho – Symbol for the element holmium.
HRP – Horseradish peroxidase.
HPLC – High performance liquid chromatography.
Hs – Symbol for the element hassium.
hU – Symbol for dihydrouridine.
Hyl – Three letter code for the uncommon amino acid hydroxylysine.
Hyp – Three letter code for hypoxanthine.
I
I – (1) Symbol for the element iodine; (2) One letter code for the amino acid isoleucine;

(3) One letter code for inosine; (4) Isopentenyl.

IEF – Isoelectric focusing.
Ile – Three letter code for the amino acid isoleucine.
In – Symbol for the element indium.
Ino – Three letter code for inosine.
io – Iodo.
IPTG – Isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside.
Ir – Symbol for the element iridium.
K
K – (1) Symbol for the element potassium; (2) One letter code for the amino acid lysine.
kb – Kilobase.
kDa – KiloDalton.
Kr – Symbol for the element krypton.
L
L – One letter code for the amino acid leucine.
La – Symbol for the element lanthanum.
LB – Luria Bertani media.
Leu – Three letter code for the amino acid leucine.
Li – Symbol for the element lithium.
Lr – Symbol for the element lawrencium.
Lu – Symbol for the element lutetium.
Lys – Three letter code for the amino acid lysine.
M
M – (1) One letter code for the amino acid methionine; (2) One letter code for thioinosine;

(3) Methyl.

MCS – Multiple cloning site.
Md – Symbol for the element mendelevium.
MeGly – Code for the uncommon amino acid N-methylglycine.
Met – Three letter code for the amino acid methionine.
Mg – Symbol for the element magnesium.
MMLV – Moloney murine leukemia virus.
mmt – Monomethoxytrityl.
Mn – Symbol for the element manganese.
Mo – Symbol for the element molybdenum.
MOPS – 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid.
mRNA – Messenger ribonucleic acid.
Mt – Symbol for the element meitnerium.
MW – Molecular weight.
N
N – (1) Nucleotide or nucleoside; (2) Symbol for the element nitrogen;

(3) One letter code for the amino acid asparagine.

Na – Symbol for the element sodium.
NAD – Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.
NADH – Reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.
NADP – Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate.
NADPH – Reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phophate.
Nb – Symbol for the element niobium.
NBT – Nitro blue tetrazolium.
Nd – Symbol for the element neodymium.
Ne – Symbol for the element neon.
Ni – Symbol for the element nickel.
Nle – Three letter code for the uncommon amino acid norisoleucine.
No – Symbol for the element nobelium.
Np – Symbol for the element neptunium.
NP-40 – Nonidet P-40.
nt – Nucleotide.
NTP – Nucleoside triphosphate.
Nuc – Three letter code for nucleotide or nucleoside.
Nva – Three letter code for the uncommon amino acid norvaline.
NZCYM – NZ amine, NaCl, bacto-yeast extract, casamino acids, and magnesium sulfate.
NZM – NZ amine, NaCl, and magnesium sulfate.
NZYM – NZ amine, NaCl, bacto-yeast extract, and magnesium sulfate.
O
O – (1) Symbol for the element oxygen; (2) One letter code for orotidine.
oh – Hydroxy.
oilgo(dT) – Oligodeoxythymidylic acid.
OMP – Orotidine monophosphate.
Ord – Three letter code for orotidine.
Orn – Three letter code for the uncommon amino acid ornithine.
Oro – Three letter code for orotate.
Os – Symbol for the element osmium.
P
P – (1) Symbol for the element phosphorus; (2) One letter code for the amino acid proline.
Pa – Symbol for the element protoactinium.
Pb – Symbol for the element lead.
PBMC – Peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
Pd – Symbol for the element palladium.
PAGE – Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
PBS – Phosphate buffered saline.
PCR – Polymerase chain reaction.
PEI – Polyethylenimine.
PEG – Polyethylene glycol.
Phe – Three letter code for the amino acid phenylalanine
Pi – Inorganic phosphate.
PIPES – Piperazine-N,N’-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid).
Pm – Symbol for the element promethium.
Po – Symbol for the element polonium.
Pr – Symbol for the element praseodymium.
Pro – Three letter symbol for the amino acid proline.
Pt – Symbol for the element platinum.
PNK – Polynucleotide kinase.
poly(A) – Polyadenylic acid.
poly(A)+ – Polyadenylated (mRNA).
poly(dA-dT) – Poly (deoxyadenlic acid – deoxythymidylic acid).
poly(dT) – Polydeoxythymidylic acid.
Pu – Symbol for the element plutonium.
Puo – Thee letter code for purine nucleoside.
Pur – Three letter code for purine.
Pyd – Thee letter code for pyrimidine nucleoside.
Pyr – Three letter code for pyrimidine.
Q
Q – One letter code for the amino acid glutamine.
R
R – (1) One letter code for the amino acid arginine; (2) One letter code for a purine nucleoside or nucleotide.
Ra – Symbol for the element radium.
RBC – Red blood cell.
Rb – Symbol for the element rubidium.
Re – Symbol for the element rhenium.
Rf – Symbol for the element rutherfordium (formerly unniquadium).
Rh – Symbol for the element rhodium.
Rn – Symbol for the element radon.
RNA – Ribonucleic acid.
RNAse – Ribonuclease.
rRNA – Ribosomal ribonucleic acid.
RT – Reverse transcriptase.
Ru – Symbol for the element ruthenium.
S
S – (1) Symbol for the element sulfur; (2) One letter code for the amino acid serine;

(3) One letter code for thiouridine; (4) Thio or Mercapto.

Sar – Three letter code for the uncommon amino acid sarcosine.
Sb – Symbol for the element antimony.
Sc – Symbol for the element scandium.
SDS – Sodium dodecyl sulfate.
Se – Symbol for the element selenium.
Ser – Three letter code for the amino acid serine.
Sg – Symbol for the element seaborgium.
Shyp – Abbreviation for mercaptopurine.
Si – Symbol for the element silicon.
SIno – Abbreviation for for thioinosine.
Sm – Symbol for the element samarium.
Sn – Symbol for the element tin.
Sno – Three letter code for thioinosine.
Sr – Symbol for the element strontium.
Srd – Three letter code for thiouridine.
ss – Single stranded.
SSC – Sodium chloride/sodium citrate buffer.
SSPE – Sodium chloride/sodium phosphate/EDTA buffer.
SU – Two letter code for thiouridine.
Sur – Three letter code for thiouracil.
SUra – Abbreviation for thiouracil.
Syp – Three letter code for mercaptopurine.
T
T – (1) Thymine or thymidine; (2) One letter code for the amino acid threonine;

(3) One letter code for ribothymidine.

Ta – Symbol for the element tantalum.
TAE – Tris/acetate/EDTA buffer.
Tb – Symbol for the element terbium.
TBE – Tris/borate/EDTA buffer.
TBS (1X) – Tris buffered saline.
TBST – Tris buffered saline with tween-20.
Tc – Symbol for the element technietium.
TdT – Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase.
Te – Symbol for the element tellurium.
TE – Tris/EDTA buffer.
TEMED – N’,N’,N’,N’-Tetramethylethylenediamine.
TES – (1) N-Tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid; (2) Tris, EDTA, and sodium chloride.
TGB – Tris glycine buffer.
Th – Symbol for the element thorium.
Thd – Three letter code for ribothymidine.
thp – Tetrahydropyranyl.
Thr – Three letter code for the amino acid threonine.
Thy – Three letter code for thymine.
Tl – Symbol for the element thalium.
Ti – Symbol for the element titanium.
TLC – Thin layer chromotography.
Tm – Melting temperature.
Tm – Symbol for the element thulium.
TMB – 3,3′,5,5′-Tetramethylbenzidine.
TNE – Tris and NaEDTA.
tos – Tosyl.
TPE – Tris/phosphate/EDTA buffer.
tr – Trityl.
TRICINE – N-Tris(hydroxymethyl)methylglycine.
Tris – Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane.
Trp – Three letter code for the amino acid tryptophan.
tRNA – Transfer ribonucleic acid.
TSY – Trypticase soy yeast.
Tyr – Three letter code for the amino acid tyrosine.
U
U – (1) Uracil or uridine; (2) Symbol for the element uranium.
Ura – Three letter code for uracil.
Urd – Three letter code for uridine.
UTP – Uridine triphosphate.
Uub – Symbol for the element ununbium.
Uun – Symbol for the element ununnilium.
Uuu – Symbol for the element unununium.
UV – Ultraviolet.
V
V – (1) Symbol for the element vanadium; (2) One letter code for the amino acid valine.
Val – Three letter code for the amino acid valine.
v/v – volume/volume
W
W – (1) Symbol for the element tungsten; (2) One letter code for the amino acid tryptophan.
w/v – weight/volume
X
X – One letter code for unkown or other uncommon amino acid.
X-Gal – 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside.
X-Gluc – 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoyl-beta-D-glucuronic acid.
Xan – Three letter code for xanthine.
Xe – Symbol for the element xenon.
Y
Y – (1) Symbol for the element yttrium; (2) One letter code for the amino acid tyrosine;

(3) One letter code for a pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide.

Yb – Symbol for the element ytterbium.
YMG – Yeast and malt extract with glucose.
YPD Media – Yeast extract/peptone/dextrose.
YPG Media – Yeast extract/peptone/galactose.
YT Media – Yeast extract/tryptone.
Z
Zn – Symbol for the element zinc.
Zr – Symbol for the element zirconium.

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