Botany Practice Quiz I (60 questions) with Answers

Botany Practice Quiz I (60 questions) with Answers
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1. Roots in cross section show _____.
A. no vascular tissue
B. vascular bundles scattered throughout the ground tissue
C. a single central bundle of vascular tissue
D. only dead cells are present in the tissues of roots

2. The endodermis of the root acts like a _____.
A. barrier for excluding minerals from the transpiration stream
B. pump for pushing water upwards in the phloem
C. protective skin for keeping water from evaporating from the cortex
D. filter system for water entering the xylem

3. The pericycle is ____.
A. a protective tissue for the delicate cells of the xylem
B. a meristematic tissue responsible for the production of lateral roots
C. an absorptive tissue for extracting minerals from the soil solution
D. a tissue whose function is unknown

4. The epidermis of roots is characterized by _______.
A. a prolific production of root hairs
B. a constant production of lateral roots
C. large numbers of stomata
D. all of the above are correct

5. Root hairs are _____.
A. extremely elongated
B. short lived
C. extremely delicate
D. all of the above are correct

6. Lateral roots _______.
A. are only produced in secondary growth in roots older than two years
B. form from external lateral root buds at root nodes
C. have a completely different structure than the main root
D. are formed by meristematic activity of the pericycle
7. Leaves _______.
A. have a cutinized epidermis
B. lack vascular tissue
C. contain the same tissues as roots
D. are produced by divisions of the pericycle

8. The hairs found on leaves ______.
A. have the same function as root hairs
B. have a different function from root hairs
C. function in attracting animals for pollination
D. function in photosynthesis

9. The palisade layer of leaf mesophyll is specialized for maximum____.
A. sunlight absorption
B. gas exchange
C. transpiration
D. all of the above are correct

10. The upward movement of water and minerals in the xylem is called the ___ stream.
A. assimilate
B. transpiration
C. photosynthetic
D. osmotic

11. In the assimilate stream, food moves _____.
A. under tension in the xylem
B. under tension in the phloem
C. under pressure in the xylem
D. under pressure in the phloem

12. The pericycle is responsible for _____.
A. production of the root cap
B. formation of lateral roots
C. storage of food
D. accelerating the flow of water into the xylem

13. The rootcap is _____.
A. composed of protective cork cells
B. present only on mature roots older than one year
C. lacking in eudicot roots
D. a protective layer of parenchyma cells

14. Root hairs _____.
A. are protective of delicate roots, similar to the way trichomes protect leaves
B. facilitate the uptake of water and minerals
C. have thick walls and are lignified for strength and support
D. none of the above are correct

15. The Casparian strip is _____.
A. found in the cell walls of cells of the pericycle
B. a protective covering for the root tip
C. composed of suberin wax
D. a water conducting tissue in the root hairs

16. In the horse chestnut, the young shoots are tightly packed in the buds and ____.
A. rarely if ever emerge
B. require a precise number of continuous sunny days to sprout
C. are vulnerable to predation by animals since they lack any form of protective covering
D. are protected by bud scales

17. The stems of Alfalfa and Buttercup are ____.
A. woody
B. herbaceous
C. deciduous
D. leafless

18. Red buckeye, Shagbark hickory, Green ash and Black locust have ____.
A. compound leaves
B. simple leaves
C. sessile leaves
D. non-green leaves

19. Xerophytes are adapted to ___ habitats.
A. aquatic
B. dark
C. arid
D. frozen

20. “Cycadeoids” had ____.
A. no meristematic tissues
B. unisexual flowers
C. spiral vessel elements
D. syndetocheilic stomata

21. Cycads are dioecious, meaning there are ____.
A. male and female plants
B. male and female cones on the same plant
C. no reproductive structures known
D. leaves that drop from the plants each fall

22. In cycads, as in all other gymnosperms, a pollen tube is ___.
A. lacking, the sperm swim freely to the egg
B. extremely long, usually more than 15 cm in length
C. one of the most important evolutionary advances in seed plants
D. considered to be a step backward from swimming sperm as found in ferns

23. Cycad fossils are ____.
A. unknown
B. known from the late Permian
C. abundant in the Devonian, but scarce in later Periods
D. never found with cones or seeds

24. Morphologically, the female (seed) cones of cycads are___.
A. simple structures, unlike the female cones of pine
B. complex structures, unlike the female cones of pine
C. simple structures, like the female cones of pine
D. complex structures, like the female cones of pine

25. Seed ferns ____.
A. were the first group of plants to have true seeds
B. evolved in the Devonian and became extinct by the Cretaceous
C. were polyphyletic, and likely gave rise to several modern lines of seed plants
D. all the above are correct

26. The Carboniferous was sometimes referred to (mistakenly) as the “Age of Ferns” because__.
A. ferns did not evolve until the Oligocene
B. Lycophyte fossils were most abundant, and have fern-like (pinnate) leaves
C. seed ferns were often mistaken for true ferns
D. none of the above are correct

27. The extant gymnosperm phylum known as the Ginkgophyta is monotypic, meaning it has
but one ____ .
A. species
B. seed
C. sex
D. fossil

28. Ginkgo biloba is regarded as a “living fossil” because it ____ .
A. is nearly indistinguishable from Permian fossil ginkgoes
B. has microphyllous leaves without any vascular tissue
C. has silicon dioxide (glass) deposits in its leaves, giving the plant a rock-like feel
D. all of the above are correct

29. Ginkgo biloba is _____ .
A. evergreen, like pines
B. dioecious, like cycads
C. insect pollinated, like flowers
D. restricted to wet places because it has swimming sperms, like ferns

30. “Gnetophytes” like Ephedra ____ .
A. may be the closest living relatives of flowering plants
B. are unknown from the fossil record
C. are the only seed plants that lack vascular tissues
D. have seeds with multiple embryos, so that a single seed produces several plants
31. Ephedra ____ .
A. ovules produce a sugary exudate that rewards insect pollinators
B. pollen is produced in the same cone as the seed
C. is the only known leafless vascular plant
D. is the commercial source of aspirin

32. Conifers arose in the ____ .
A. Cretaceous from ancestors like Welwitschia
B. Cambrian from ancestors like Medullosa
C. Carboniferous from ancestors like Cordaites
D. none of the above are correct

33. Morphologically, a short shoot in Pinus is a ___ .
A. tree stunted by a parasitic fungus
B. fascicle of needles
C. large modified pinnate leaf
D. reproductive branch

34. Thick cuticle and sunken stomata are ___ .
A. xerophytic adaptations of pine leaves
B. found in the vascular tissues of pine
C. characteristics of pine pollen
D. all the above are correct

35. Inside the young pine pollen grain are four cells, which represent the ___ .
A. microsporocyte
B. microsporophyll
C. microgametophyte
D. microsporophyte

36. Pines are ____ .
A. monoecious
B. monocotyledonous
C. deciduous
D. dioecious

37. Inside the pine pollen grain is a ____.
A. single large sperm
B. tiny embryo
C. microgametophyte
D. microspore

38. The pine pollen grain will ____ .
A. be deposited onto the ovule by a winged insect like a bee or a bird
B. enter the micropyle of the ovule and rest on the megasporangium
C. land directly on the megagametophyte to deliver microspores to the egg
D. remain viable for many years, eventually liberating sperms for wind dispersal

39. Cotyledons of pine embryos are also known as ___ .
A. feeder roots
B. food conducting cells
C. seed leaves
D. long shoots

40. The flowering plants have dominated the land for over ___ million years.
A. 100
B. 300
C. 600
D. 800

41. Irises, bananas and Trillium are examples of ___.
A. non-flowering angiosperms
B. wind pollinated plants
C. monocots
D. eudicots

42. The flower is a ___.
A. modified leaf
B. determinate shoot
C. gametophyte
D. all the above are correct

43. The part of the flower stalk to which the flower parts are attached is the ______.
A. perianth
B. calyx
C. receptacle
D. peduncle

44. The carpels are the ____ parts of flowers.
A. ovule-bearing
B. pollen-bearing
C. scent-producing
D. sterile

45. The placenta is the ____.
A. embryonic shoot tip inside the ovule
B. portion of the ovary where the ovules are attached
C. place where the petals and sepals are attached to the receptacle
D. open chamber inside the ovary

46. Flowers are said to be perfect if they ____.
A. include both stamens and carpels
B. are attractive and animal pollinated
C. mature enough for fertilization
D. unisexual

47. A species is said to be monoecious if ____.
A. the seed has a single cotyledon
B. the plant is homosporous
C. both staminate and carpellate flowers occur on the same plant
D. is pollinated by a single species of animal

48. If staminate and carpellate flowers are found on separate plants, the species is said to be ____.
A. incomplete
B. homosexual
C. perfect
D. dioecious

49. Symmetry in flowers has ___ main forms.
A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 5

50. The exine layer of pollen grains is composed of _______.
A. sporopollenin
B. cutin
C. lignin
D. suberin

51. Pollen grains are ____ in the fossil record.
A. absent
B. seldom, but occasionally, found
C. widely represented
D. too delicate to be preserved

52. The funiculus and the micropyle are found on ___.
A. ovules
B. pollen grains
C. anthers
D. stigmas

53. Compared with those of gymnosperms, the pollen tubes of most angiosperms ____.
A. are much shorter
B. must be many times smaller in diameter
C. grow faster
D. carry flagellated sperms

54. The union of one sperm cell with the egg, and the other sperm cell with the polar nuclei leads
to the formation of an embryo and_____.
A. endosperm
B. a fruit
C. cotyledons
D. a seed coat
55. The “angio” in angiosperm refers to the fact that ______.
A. anthers produce pollen grains
B. the flower is bisexual
C. ovules are covered by an ovary
D. fertilization takes place without free water

56. Flowering plants appeared ____.
A. in the Devonian, just after the gymnosperms became extinct, about 10 million years ago
B. at the start of the Cretaceous Period, about 145 million years ago
C. at the beginning of the Cambrian Period
D. near the end of the Carboniferous Period

57. Approximately ____ of flowering plants are insect pollinated.
A. 75%
B. 65%
C. 55%
D. 45%

58. Morphologically, a flower is a modified ______.
A. cell
B. spore
C. branch
D. leaf

59. Morphologically, the pistil of a flower is one or more carpels, and a carpel is ______.
A. the male part of the flower
B. the female gametophyte
C. an ovule
D. a folded fused megasporophyll

60. Which of these plants is non-vascular?
A. fern
B. moss
C. apple
D. pine