1- Which of the following would make a greater contribution to rising sea levels?
a. melting sea ice
b. melting land-based ice
c. increased levels of precipitation in some areas
d. increased levels of atmospheric water vapor
e. increased levels of global evaporation and transpiration
2- A warmer world is least likely to result in
a. decreased food production
b. reductions in biodiversity
c. a rise in sea level
d. more moderate weather
e. spread of tropical diseases
3- A loss of 15% of _____ would cause a one meter rise in sea level that would threaten millions of people and cause trillions of dollar of damage to coastal areas.
a. the Antarctic ice sheet
b. the Arctic ice sheet
c. inland glaciers in Alaska
d. Greenland’s ice sheet
e. Iceland’s ice sheet
4 – As oceans become more acidic, the shells of tiny sea snails tend to dissolve. This is a concern because:
a. The snail shells provide material for jewelry making on south sea islands.
b. The shells are ground up and used for fertilizer for agricultural crops.
c. The snails are the base of a food web that supports entire polar ecosystems.
d. More than one of these are correct.
e. None of these answers.
5- All of the following are prevention approaches to global warming except
a. limiting urban sprawl
b. shifting to renewable energy sources
c. improving energy efficiency and transferring energy-efficiency and pollution-prevention technologies to developing countries
d. slowing population growth
e. dispersing methane from landfills to prevent explosions
6- In 1987, 36 nations meeting in Montreal, Canada, developed the Montreal Protocol to reduce production of
a. carbon dioxide
b. nitrous oxide
d. toxic wastes
7- With immediate and sustained action to stop production of all ozone-depleting chemicals:
a. The ozone-hole problem will be solved immediately.
b. It will take about 5 years for the earth’s ozone layer to recover to 1980 levels.
c. It will take about 30 years for the earth’s ozone layer to recover to pre-1950 levels.
d. It will take about 60 years for the earth’s ozone layer to recover to pre-1950 levels.
e. It will take about 60 years for the earth’s ozone layer to recover to 1980 levels.
8- The top three U.S. producers of hazardous waste, in decreasing order, are
a. the film industry, the computer industry, and the military
b. the military, the mining industry, and the chemical industry
c. the agricultural industry, the military, and the mining industry
d. the military, the chemical industry, and the mining industry
e. transportation industries (air and boat travel), the mining industry, and the military
9- Obstacles to recycling include
a. lack of inclusion of environmental costs in market prices
b. tax breaks for mining virgin materials
c. lack of large, steady markets for recycled materials
d. all of these answers
e. none of these answers
10- Only about 7% of ______ products are recycled in the United States because there are so many different types that can be difficult to separate.
a. involves training bacteria to eat new foods
b. results in the production of low-level hazardous wastes
c. involves the use of bacteria and enzymes to destroy hazardous substances
d. is widely accepted as the best way to cut hazardous wastes
e. does not exist
a. involves the use of plants to remove contaminants from polluted soil and water
b. involves the use of microscopic filter-feeding organisms to filter contaminants from water
c. has been shown to be ineffective in the long term
d. is too costly to be practical
13- The first priority in dealing with hazardous wastes is
a. to collect them
b. to produce less of it
c. to use bioremediation
d. to store it effectively
14- The idea that everyone is entitled to protection from environmental hazards regardless of race, gender, age, national origin, income, social class, or any political factor is called
a. environmental racism
b. environmental sustainability
c. environmental policy
d. environmental justice
e. none of these answers
15- At present consumption rates, projected world crude oil reserves will be 80% depleted
a. some time between 2011 and 2061
b. at the beginning of the next millennium
c. between 2050 and 2100
d. by 2050, unless the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is opened to oil drilling
e. by 2025, unless the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is opened to oil drilling
16- Which of the following countries has the greatest tar sand deposits?
a. Saudi Arabia
e. United States
17- A process for extracting natural gas that is causing a growing environmental problem involves hydraulic fracturing of rocks and is called
a. deep well mining
b. strip mining
c. offshore drilling
d. deep water drilling
18- The world’s most abundant conventional fossil fuel is
a. crude oil
b. natural gas
d. tar sand
19- The majority of commercial energy comes from
d. renewable energy resources from the earth’s crust
e. nonrenewable energy resources from the earth’s crust
20- The explosions at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in northeast Japan following damage by an offshore earthquake blew the roofs off of three of the reactor buildings. The explosions were caused
a. presumably by a meltdown of the reactor cores.
b. presumably by steam from the heat exchangers inside the reactor cores
c. presumably by a build up of hydrogen gas when the backup generators were disabled
d. terrorists taking advantage of the chaos of the situation
e. spent fuel rods that were exposed when the storage water tanks cracked and stopped cooling the rods
21- The purpose of generating steam within a nuclear power plant reactor core is, like other energy producing systems, to
a. generate heat to heat buildings
b. turn a turbine which generates electricity
c. use the radioactivity to drive industrial processes
d. create light that is transferred to factories and local industries
e. Turbines are not part of nuclear reactor cores
22- In the western United States, as compared to the eastern United States, the major water problem(s) is (are)
b. insufficient water for some urban areas
c. chronic drought and insufficient runoff
d. pollution of rivers, lakes, and groundwater
e. insufficient water for industry
23- It is most economically and environmentally sound to focus water resource management on
a. increasing the water supply
b. controlling the “mining” of groundwater
c. reducing unnecessary waste of water
d. developing desalination plants
e. cloud seeding and towing icebergs to arid regions
24- Solutions to the increasing problem with water shortages in central and southern California include
a. reducing water waste by improving irrigation efficiency
b. not growing water-thirsty crops in this arid climate
c. raising the historically low cost of water to encourage water conservation
d. educating water users as the value of this precious resource
e. reducing water waste by improving irrigation efficiency, not growing water-thirsty crops in this arid climate and raising the historically low cost of water to encourage conservation
25- According to the World Resources Institute, what percentage of the water that people use throughout the world is unnecessarily wasted?