General Biology Quiz II

General Biology Quiz II
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26

Antibacterial soaps have greatly increased in use over the past three decades. One argument against the widespread, daily use of antibacterial products is based upon artificial selection. How might antibacterial products lead to the selection of more dangerous bacteria?

  • Antibacterial soaps cause mutations in bacteria that can change harmless bacteria into pathogenic bacteria
  • Antibacterial soaps kill all of the bacteria on the skin, most of which are neither harmful nor helpful, leaving resistant bacteria behind
  • Antibacterial soaps kill the most resistant bacteria, leaving behind the most harmful bacteria on the skin
  • Antibacterial soaps are more drying for the skin, causing cracks that could allow any bacteria to penetrate the skin layer

27

Which of the following developments led to a great increase in genetic variation?

  • Asexual reproduction
  • Artificial selection
  • Sexual reproduction
  • Self fertilization

28

“If members of a population of organisms become geographically isolated, and adapt to a somewhat different environment over time, how might they cause an increase in genetic variation of the original population?”

  • “If the populations do not have contact, each will increase in genetic variation on its own as the result of natural selection”
  • “If the populations have contact, and sexual reproduction occurs, new genes may be introduced to the original population”
  • “If the populations do not have contact, each will increase its genetic variation through asexual reproduction”
  • “If the populations have contact, and have become different species, interbreeding will increase genetic variation”

29

“The punnett square shown below represents a cross between a mother and a father, for one trait. Which one of the choices listed below represents the potential genotypes for the offspring in squares #1 and #4?”

  • “Genotypes should be #1, bb and #4 BB”
  • “Genotypes will be #1, BB and #4 Bb”
  • Genotypes #1 Bb and #4 Bb
  • “Genotypes are #1, Bb and #4 bb”

30

Some genes have a variety of different forms that are located at the same position on a chromosome. What do we call this variety of different forms?

  • Mutations
  • Phenotypes
  • Alleles
  • Acquired traits

31

What are the monomers that make up DNA and RNA?

  • Monosaccharides
  • Nucleic acids
  • Fatty acids
  • Nucleotides

32

Population density is based on many factors. What is population density?

  • The number of different populations within a community
  • The total number of individuals of all species in a defined area
  • The amount of space needed by individuals of a species in a defined area
  • The number of individuals of a species in a defined area

33

Distribution of a species can be affected by a number of factors. What are some of the physical factors that may directly affect a species’ geographic distribution?

  • “Temperature, wind, and sunlight”
  • “Temperature, prey interactions, and light”
  • “Predation, mutualism, and competition”
  • “Water, competition, and reproduction”

34

“One of the most well known studies of warbler birds is a study of five warbler species that live in a spruce forest. The illustration below shows where they live within spruce trees, followed by a description of the warblers. Of the information provided, which statement below describes the warbler’s ecological niche?”

  • 5 warbler species (Dendroica spp.)
  • Live together in relatively homogenous 15-20 m spruce forest
  • “Mainly insectivorous, similar size/shape bill structure”
  • Migrate in winter
  • Warbler species decreasing in population
  • Spruce tree populations declining
  • Forest impacted by climate change
  • Restoration efforts for spruce forests
  • “Restoration of spruce forests, warbler’s decreasing population, climate change
  • “Food source, habitat within spruce tree, migration in winter”
  • “Food source, spruce population declining, habitat within spruce tree”
  • “Migrates in winter, declining in population, prey for larger birds”

35

“A wide variety of organisms such as sea otters, parasitic wasps, elephants, tiger sharks, bats, and birds assist with pollination. Researchers have discovered, when removing these organisms from a particular ecosystem, instances where the ecosystem was critically damaged or even destroyed by their removal. How do we refer to these organisms?”

  • These organisms are producers within the ecosystem
  • These organisms are predators within the ecosystem
  • These organisms are variables within the ecosystem
  • These organisms are keystone species within the ecosystem

36

“Wolves are a keystone species in many habitats that keep deer populations in check. Deers eat small trees, so when there is an overpopulation of deer, there a often very few trees. Birds live and feed in trees and beavers use the wood to build their dams. What would result from the loss of wolves within such an ecosystem?”

  • There would be a minor impact with more deer and fewer trees but otherwise few changes
  • There would be more birds and beavers and the whole ecosystem would change
  • There would be fewer birds and beavers and the whole ecosystem would change
  • “There would be major changes in wind, rainfall and temperature conditions”

37

“What type of terrestrial biome lies near the equator, has a warm temperature, and 10-11 hours of consistent daylight year round?”

  • Chaparral
  • Tropical forest
  • Savanna
  • Temperate forest

38

“Currently, tropical rain forests are under great pressure. When trees are removed from this biome, there is a substantial loss of nutrients, water loss, and loss of species. When tropical rain forests are removed, the climate is hot, has very little available water, and has poor nutrient soils. Tropical rain forests therefore, tend to develop into which biome?”

  • Savannah
  • Tundra
  • Deserts
  • Woodland forest

39

“Below is a map showing the major biomes of North America. One of the biomes has been labeled with the number “”1″”. This biome is characterized by long, hot summers and in early american history, it was covered with herds of grazing animal. What biome is this?”

  • Deciduous forest biome
  • Grassland biome
  • Desert biome
  • Temperate forest biome

40

“Below is a phylogenetic tree showing the domains bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. There is a point marked with a question mark, where the domain lines intersect. What does this point represent?”

  • Last universal common ancestor
  • First life documented on earth
  • First known universal ancestor
  • Last prokaryotic cells on earth

41

“The cretaceous-tertiary extinction occurred approximately 65 million years ago, causing what organisms to became extinct and what were the major causes for this mass extinction event?”

  • “Only dinosaurs species became extinct; extinction is thought to be caused by advancing glaciers forming a huge ice sheet in the southern hemisphere, drastically changing the climate”
  • Marine ocean species became extinct; extinction is thought to be caused by warming of the oceans from volcanic activity and heating of the earth devoiding sea beds of oxygen
  • “Only insects experienced massive extinctions; extinction is thought to be caused by catastrophic methane release, warming of oceans, and major decrease in oxygen levels
  • “Dinosaurs and many flowering plants became extinct; extinction is thought to be caused by eruptions affecting the world’s climate, drastic falls in sea level and the impact of a huge asteroid”

42

Populations of both plants and animals can often exchange genes with populations from another geographic area. How does this potentially increase diversity?

  • “Organisms adapted to differing environments have experienced different selection pressures, increasing the gene pool”
  • “Organisms that have been separated have developed more mutations, bringing more diversity into the two populations”
  • Organisms that have been separated will choose a mate from the other population in an effort to increase diversity
  • “Organisms adapted to differing environments, may have become different species, which will not allow them to interbreed”

43

“Plants and animals respond to their environment in unique ways. They may alter how they obtain food, may learn how to perform tasks, and may move based upon the activities of others. What type of adaptation is being described?”

  • Genetic adaptation
  • Lamarkian adaptation
  • Behavioral adaptation
  • Phenotypic adaptation

44

“Structures that evolved from the same structure, in a common ancestor, are called

  • Homologous
  • Adaptive
  • Analogous
  • Heterologous

45

Alleles are the genes for specific traits. Why do we refer to them as alleles rather than genes?

  • “Alleles represent who the message is inherited from, not the actual genetic message”
  • Alleles represent the different phenotypes that can be produced by a genetic message
  • Alleles represent the different genetic messages that can exist for any specific gene
  • “Alleles represent the location of the gene on the chromosome, not the actual genetic message”

46

“Co-dominance occurs when the alleles in a heterozygous condition are expressed equally. Human blood type is an example of this inheritance pattern. Assuming a female who is blood type AB will have children with a male who is blood type AB, what are the Phenotypic probabilities for their children?”

  • “25% type A, 50% type AB, 25% type B”
  • “50% type A, 50% type AB”
  • “25% type A, 75% type B”
  • “50% type A, 25% type AB, 25% type B”

47

“When DNA is replicated, DNA polymerase must move down the DNA strand. In which direction does the process of DNA replication occur?”

  • From the 3′ to the 5′ end
  • From the T base to the end
  • From the A base to the end
  • From the 5′ to the 3′ end

48

RNA is structured differently than DNA. What are two differences found in RNA when comparing it to DNA?

  • “RNA does not contain any type of sugar, but does contain phosphate groups”
  • “RNA does not contain phosphate groups, but does contain ribose sugar”
  • RNA is single stranded and contains ribose sugars
  • RNA is single stranded and contains deoxyribose sugars

49

“Before RNA is translated into a protein, DNA must first go through what process? Where in the cell does this process take place?”

  • Transcription of RNA;cytoplasm
  • Transcription of a polypeptide;nucleus
  • Transcription of RNA;nucleus
  • Transcription of a polypeptide;cytoplasm

50

Which of the following accurately describes the process of translation?

  • The reading of the mRNA codons to translate the code into an amino acid chain
  • The reading of the mRNA codons to translate the code into DNA
  • The reading of the DNA codons to translate the code into an amino acid chain
  • The reading of the tRNA codons to translate DNA into mRNA

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